The goal of this blog is to register novel indexed papers about PRRS diagnostics, monitoring, control and elimination. This will include: reports of novel or improved diagnostic methods; papers about effictiveness of PRRS vaccines on pig performance, shedding and transmission; important news about PRRS virus structure and applied immunology; and much, much more. Stay tuned and be the first to know!
Prophyl Animal Health Ltd, Dózsa György u 18, 7700 Mohács, Hungary. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Prophyl Animal Health Ltd, Dózsa György u 18, 7700 Mohács, Hungary.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health (BVF), Almas Allé 8, Uppsala, Sweden.
Visavet Centre and Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Av. Séneca 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
Highly contagious and emerging diseases cause significant losses in the pig producing industry worldwide. Rapid and exact acquisition of real-time data, like body temperature and animal movement from the production facilities would enable early disease detection and facilitate adequate response. In this study, carried out within the European Union research project RAPIDIA FIELD, we tested an online monitoring system on pigs experimentally infected with the East European subtype 3 Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) strain Lena. We linked data from different body temperature measurement methods and the real-time movement of the pigs. The results showed a negative correlation between body temperature and movement of the animals. The correlation was similar with both body temperature obtaining methods, rectal and thermal sensing microchip, suggesting some advantages of body temperature measurement with transponders compared with invasive and laborious rectal measuring. We also found a significant difference between motion values before and after the challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain. The decrease in motion values was noticeable before any clinical sign was recorded. Based on our results the online monitoring system could represent a practical tool in registering early warning signs of health status alterations, both in experimental and commercial production settings.
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The efficacy of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified-live virus vaccine in reproductive performance was evaluated under field conditions. Three PRRS endemic farms were selected based on their history of PRRS-associated reproductive failures. On each farm, a total of 40 sows were randomly allocated to either vaccinated (n=20) or unvaccinated (n=20) groups. Sows were vaccinated six weeks prior to breeding. Clinical data showed a significant improvement in reproductive performance in vaccinated sows. Sows in the vaccinated groups had a significantly (P<0.05) reduced number of stillborn piglets in all 3 farms. Sows in the vaccinated groups also had a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of live-born piglets in one of the farms. Sows in the vaccinated groups had a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of weaned piglets in two of the farms. Premature farrowing, one of the late gestation symptoms of PRRS, was also reduced due to vaccination as suggested by the increase in gestation length and the reduction in the number of stillborn piglets. No adverse systemic or local side effects relative to vaccination were observed during the entire gestation. No vaccine strain was detected in the vaccinated sows from all three farms at 70 and 114days post vaccination and in live-born piglets at the time of farrowing. Vaccination of sows with this PRRS vaccine was effective in improving reproductive performance in endemic PRRS farms.
Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents (i.e., bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, etc.), and efforts to detect viral aerosols in pig farms seem sparse. Data generated by such studies would be particularly useful for assessments of virus transmission and ecology. Here, we summarize the results of a literature review conducted to identify published articles related to bioaerosol generation and detection within swine production facilities, with a focus on airborne viruses. We identified 73 scientific reports, published between 1991 and 2017, which were included in this review. Of these, 19 (26.7%) used sampling methodology for the detection of viruses. Our findings show that bioaerosol sampling methodologies in swine production settings have predominately focused on the detection of bacteria and fungi, with no apparent standardization between different approaches. Information, specifically regarding virus aerosol burden in swine production settings, appears to be limited. However, the number of viral aerosol studies has markedly increased in the past 5 years. With the advent of new sampling technologies and improved diagnostics, viral bioaerosol sampling could be a promising way to conduct non-invasive viral surveillance among swine farms.
air sampling; animal production; bioaerosols; swine; viruses; zoonoses
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that the outbreaks were caused by a PRRSV closely related to viruses present in swine farms in North America, and different from the strain that circulated in the country before 2009. Using divergence time estimation analysis, we found that the 2013-2015 PRRSV may have been circulating in Chile for at least one month before the first detection. A single strain of PRRSV spread into a limited number of commercial and backyard swine farms. New infections in commercial systems have not been reported since October 2014, and eradication is underway by clearing the disease from the few commercial and backyard farms that remain positive. This is one of the few documented experiences of PRRSV introduction into a disease-free country.
Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 2221 Lloyd Veterinary Medicine Center, 1600 16S Street, Ames, IA, 50010, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, 385B Animal Science Veterinary Medicine Building, 1988 Fitch Avenue, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) is an economically significant swine pathogen causing production losses in the global swine industry. Clinical impact depends on many factors including the virus itself. One method to sub-type PRRSv is using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The RFLP pattern 1-7-4 emerged within the United States swine industry in 2014 and has become prevalent since then. This was a field study that prospectively followed 1-7-4-infected breeding herds (n=107) and compared time to stability (TTS), time to baseline production (TTBP) and total loss per 1000 sows between herds using modified-live virus vaccine (MLV) on sows and gilts (MLV-MLV), MLV on sows and MLV in addition to field virus exposure on gilts (MLV-MLV/FVE) or not deliberately exposing sows or gilts to PRRSv (Natural-Natural). Analyses were done in SAS 9.4 and results were adjusted by selected co-variates (duration of herd closure, number of previous PRRSv outbreaks of last 3 years, weaning frequency/week, gilt development unit location, herd size and production system). Survival analysis was conducted on TTS and TTBP and regression analysis on total loss. Herds in the Natural-Natural group achieved TTS and TTBP before other herds. Herds in the MLV-MLV/FVE had the longest TTS and TTBP. The total loss was numerically least in MLV-MLV herds (1194 pigs/1000 sows) compared to MLV/MLV-FVE (1810/1000 sows) and Natural-Natural (2671/1000 sows). This study provided additional information to assist veterinarians deciding between methods of exposure to manage PRRSv infection from breeding herds.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection causes a devastating economic impact to the swine industry. Active surveillance is routinely conducted in many swine herds to demonstrate freedom from PRRSv infection. The design of efficient active surveillance sampling schemes is challenging because optimum surveillance strategies may differ depending on infection status, herd structure, management, or resources for conducting sampling. Here, we present an open web-based application, named 'OptisampleTM', designed to optimize herd sampling strategies to substantiate freedom of infection considering also costs of testing. In addition to herd size, expected prevalence, test sensitivity, and desired level of confidence, the model takes into account the presumed risk of pathogen introduction between samples, the structure of the herd, and the process to select the samples over time. We illustrate the functionality and capacity of 'OptisampleTM' through its application to active surveillance of PRRSv in hypothetical swine herds under disparate epidemiological situations. Diverse sampling schemes were simulated and compared for each herd to identify effective strategies at low costs. The model results show that to demonstrate freedom from disease, it is important to consider both the epidemiological situation of the herd and the sample selected. The approach illustrated here for PRRSv may be easily extended to other animal disease surveillance systems using the web-based application available at http://stemma.ahc.umn.edu/optisample.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes far-reaching financial losses to infected countries and regions, including the U.S. The Dr. Morrison's Swine Health Monitoring Program (MSHMP) is a voluntary initiative in which producers and veterinarians share sow farm PRRS status weekly to contribute to the understanding, in quantitative terms, of PRRS epidemiological dynamics and, ultimately, to support its control in the U.S. Here, we offer a review of a variety of analytic tools that were applied to MSHMP data to assess disease dynamics in quantitative terms to support the decision-making process for veterinarians and producers. Use of those methods has helped the U.S. swine industry to quantify the cyclical patterns of PRRS, to describe the impact that emerging pathogens has had on that pattern, to identify the nature and extent at which environmental factors (e.g., precipitation or land cover) influence PRRS risk, to identify PRRS virus emerging strains, and to assess the influence that voluntary reporting has on disease control. Results from the numerous studies reviewed here provide important insights into PRRS epidemiology that help to create the foundations for a near real-time prediction of disease risk, and, ultimately, will contribute to support the prevention and control of, arguably, one of the most devastating diseases affecting the North American swine industry. The review also demonstrates how different approaches to analyze and visualize the data may help to add value to the routine collection of surveillance data and support infectious animal disease control.
Swine Health Monitoring Project; data sharing; epidemiology; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; spatiotemporal analysis