The goal of this blog is to register novel indexed papers about PRRS diagnostics, monitoring, control and elimination. This will include: reports of novel or improved diagnostic methods; papers about effictiveness of PRRS vaccines on pig performance, shedding and transmission; important news about PRRS virus structure and applied immunology; and much, much more. Stay tuned and be the first to know!
Danish Pig Research Centre, Danish Agriculture & Food Council, Kjellerup, Denmark. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Technical University of Denmark, National Veterinary Institute, Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Technical University of Denmark, National Veterinary Institute, Lyngby, Denmark.
Technical University of Denmark, National Veterinary Institute, Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Technical University of Denmark, National Veterinary Institute, Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Technical University of Denmark, National Veterinary Institute, Lindholm, Denmark. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Danish Pig Research Centre, Danish Agriculture & Food Council, Kjellerup, Denmark. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Technical University of Denmark, National Veterinary Institute, Lyngby, Denmark. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The objective of the study was to compare responses of pigs vaccinated with a PRRS MLV vaccine against PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 with the responses of pigs vaccinated simultaneously with both vaccines. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two PRRSV MLV vaccination strategies was assessed following challenge. The experimental design included four groups of 4-weeks old SPF-pigs. On day 0 (DPV0), groups 1-3 (N=18 per group) were vaccinated with modified live virus vaccines (MLV) containing PRRSV-1 virus (VAC-T1), PRRSV-2 virus (VAC-T2) or both (VAC-T1T2). One group was left unvaccinated (N=12). On DPV 62, the pigs from groups 1-4 were mingled in new groups and challenged (DPC 0) with PRRSV-1, subtype 1, PRRSV-1, subtype 2 or PRRSV-2. On DPC 13/14 all pigs were necropsied. Samples were collected after vaccination and challenge. PRRSV was detected in all vaccinated pigs and the majority of the pigs were positive until DPV 28, but few of the pigs were still viremic 62 days after vaccination. Virus was detected in nasal swabs until DPV 7-14. No overt clinical signs were observed after challenge. PRRSV-2 vaccination resulted in a clear reduction in viral load in serum after PRRSV-2 challenge, whereas there was limited effect on the viral load in serum following challenge with the PRRSV-1 strains. Vaccination against PRRSV-1 had less impact on viremia following challenge. The protective effects of simultaneous vaccination with PRRSV Type 1 and 2 MLV vaccines and single PRRS MLV vaccination were comparable. None of the vaccines decreased the viral load in the lungs at necropsy. In conclusion, simultaneous vaccination with MLV vaccines containing PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 elicited responses comparable to single vaccination and the commercial PRRSV vaccines protected only partially against challenge with heterologous strains. Thus, simultaneous administration of the two vaccines is an option in herds with both PRRSV types.
PRRSV; Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; Swine; Vaccination
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) causes substantial economic impact due to significant losses in productivity. Thus, measuring changes in farm productivity before and after PRRS infection enables quantifying the production and economic impact of outbreaks. This study assessed the application of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA), a statistical process control method, on selected production data (number of abortions, pre-weaning mortality rate and prenatal losses) to supplement PRRS surveillance programs by detecting significant deviations on productivity in a production system with 55,000 sows in 14 breed-to-wean herds in Minnesota, U.S.A. Weekly data from diagnostic monitoring program (available through the Morrison’s Swine Health Monitoring Project) implemented on the same herds was used as reference for PRRS status. The time-to-detect, percentage of early detection of PRRSv-associated productivity deviations, and relative sensitivity and specificity of the production data monitoring system were determined relative to the MSHMP. The time-to-detect deviations on productivity associated with PRRS outbreaks using the EWMA method was −4 to −1 weeks (interquartile range) for the number of abortions, 0–0 for preweaning mortality and −1 to 3 weeks for prenatal losses compared to the date it was reported in the MSHMP database. Overall, the models had high relative sensitivity (range 85.7–100%) and specificity (range 98.5%–99.6%) when comparing to the changes in PRRS status reported in the MSHMP database. In summary, the use of systematic data monitoring showed a high concordance compared to the MSHMP-reported outbreaks indicating that on-farm staff and veterinary oversight were efficient to detect PRRSv, but can be more efficient if they were monitoring closely the frequency of abortions. The systematic monitoring of production indicators using EWMA offers opportunity to standardize and semi-automate the detection of deviations on productivity associated with PRRS infection, offering opportunity to early detect outbreaks and/or to quantify the production losses attributed to PRRS infection.
Division of Animal Science, College of Food Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.
Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA.
Genus, plc, DeForest, Wisconsin, USA.
Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA. email@example.com.
After infection of the porcine dam at about 90 days of gestation, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) crosses the placenta and begins to infect fetuses. Outcomes of include abortion, fetal death and respiratory disease in newborn piglets. CD163 is the receptor for the virus. In this study, CD163-positive fetuses, recovered between 109 days of gestation or 20 days after maternal infection, were completely protected from PRRSV in dams possessing a complete knockout of the CD163 receptor. The results demonstrate a practical means to eliminate PRRSV-associated reproductive disease, a major source of economic hardship to agriculture.
Prophyl Animal Health Ltd, Dózsa György u 18, 7700 Mohács, Hungary. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Prophyl Animal Health Ltd, Dózsa György u 18, 7700 Mohács, Hungary.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health (BVF), Almas Allé 8, Uppsala, Sweden.
Visavet Centre and Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Av. Séneca 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
Highly contagious and emerging diseases cause significant losses in the pig producing industry worldwide. Rapid and exact acquisition of real-time data, like body temperature and animal movement from the production facilities would enable early disease detection and facilitate adequate response. In this study, carried out within the European Union research project RAPIDIA FIELD, we tested an online monitoring system on pigs experimentally infected with the East European subtype 3 Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) strain Lena. We linked data from different body temperature measurement methods and the real-time movement of the pigs. The results showed a negative correlation between body temperature and movement of the animals. The correlation was similar with both body temperature obtaining methods, rectal and thermal sensing microchip, suggesting some advantages of body temperature measurement with transponders compared with invasive and laborious rectal measuring. We also found a significant difference between motion values before and after the challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain. The decrease in motion values was noticeable before any clinical sign was recorded. Based on our results the online monitoring system could represent a practical tool in registering early warning signs of health status alterations, both in experimental and commercial production settings.
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The efficacy of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) modified-live virus vaccine in reproductive performance was evaluated under field conditions. Three PRRS endemic farms were selected based on their history of PRRS-associated reproductive failures. On each farm, a total of 40 sows were randomly allocated to either vaccinated (n=20) or unvaccinated (n=20) groups. Sows were vaccinated six weeks prior to breeding. Clinical data showed a significant improvement in reproductive performance in vaccinated sows. Sows in the vaccinated groups had a significantly (P<0.05) reduced number of stillborn piglets in all 3 farms. Sows in the vaccinated groups also had a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of live-born piglets in one of the farms. Sows in the vaccinated groups had a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of weaned piglets in two of the farms. Premature farrowing, one of the late gestation symptoms of PRRS, was also reduced due to vaccination as suggested by the increase in gestation length and the reduction in the number of stillborn piglets. No adverse systemic or local side effects relative to vaccination were observed during the entire gestation. No vaccine strain was detected in the vaccinated sows from all three farms at 70 and 114days post vaccination and in live-born piglets at the time of farrowing. Vaccination of sows with this PRRS vaccine was effective in improving reproductive performance in endemic PRRS farms.
Modern swine production facilities typically house dense populations of pigs and may harbor a variety of potentially zoonotic viruses that can pass from one pig generation to another and periodically infect human caretakers. Bioaerosol sampling is a common technique that has been used to conduct microbial risk assessments in swine production, and other similar settings, for a number of years. However, much of this work seems to have been focused on the detection of non-viral microbial agents (i.e., bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, etc.), and efforts to detect viral aerosols in pig farms seem sparse. Data generated by such studies would be particularly useful for assessments of virus transmission and ecology. Here, we summarize the results of a literature review conducted to identify published articles related to bioaerosol generation and detection within swine production facilities, with a focus on airborne viruses. We identified 73 scientific reports, published between 1991 and 2017, which were included in this review. Of these, 19 (26.7%) used sampling methodology for the detection of viruses. Our findings show that bioaerosol sampling methodologies in swine production settings have predominately focused on the detection of bacteria and fungi, with no apparent standardization between different approaches. Information, specifically regarding virus aerosol burden in swine production settings, appears to be limited. However, the number of viral aerosol studies has markedly increased in the past 5 years. With the advent of new sampling technologies and improved diagnostics, viral bioaerosol sampling could be a promising way to conduct non-invasive viral surveillance among swine farms.
air sampling; animal production; bioaerosols; swine; viruses; zoonoses
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that the outbreaks were caused by a PRRSV closely related to viruses present in swine farms in North America, and different from the strain that circulated in the country before 2009. Using divergence time estimation analysis, we found that the 2013-2015 PRRSV may have been circulating in Chile for at least one month before the first detection. A single strain of PRRSV spread into a limited number of commercial and backyard swine farms. New infections in commercial systems have not been reported since October 2014, and eradication is underway by clearing the disease from the few commercial and backyard farms that remain positive. This is one of the few documented experiences of PRRSV introduction into a disease-free country.